Organizations / France - CIRS

International Center for Scientific Research

Organizations / France

  • Country name : France.
  • Official name : French Republic.
  • System of government : Fifth republic
  • National anthem :


  • Area : 551,500 km².
  • Capital : Paris.
  • Border countries : Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, and United Kingdom..


  • Population : 63,6 millions (2006).
  • Language(s) : French, declining regional dialects (Provençal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican).
  • Religions : Roman Catholic (81%), Protestant (1.7%), Muslim (6.9%), Jewish (1.3%).


>France is one of the world’s top five economic powers.
>It is the largest agricultural producer in the European Union and a significant proportion of its production is exported.
>It is ranked fifth in the world in terms of industry and has a dynamic and competitive transport industry (TGV), nuclear industry, some car and aerospace manufacturing (Airbus), and telecommunications.
>The country possesses important resources of uranium (the richest deposit in the European Union). Three quarters of its energy is produced by nuclear power, which makes France the world’s premier nuclear energy consumer.
>The luxury industries (high fashion, wine, perfumes) and tourism are sectors in which France is amongst the best in the world.


>The 4th century : "The country of Francs" is the embryo of what would become, through conquests and intermixing of populations (Romans, Visigoths, Burgondes, Francs, Bretons) the France we know today.
>The history of France is dominated by the monarchy (13 centuries), which is at its peak under the administration of Louis XIV (1643-1715), whose reign illustrates the absolute and centralist character of the royal power.
>1789 : Revolution which puts an end to the monarchy.
>1804-1814 : First Empire under Napoleon I.
>1815-1848 : The restoration of the monarchy.
>1848-1852 : Second Republic.
>1852-1870 : Second Empire under Napoleon III.
>1870 : The restoration of the (third) Republic.
>1914-18 : The First World War.
>1940-45 : The Second World War, the country is occupied by Germany.
>1957 : France is a founder member of the European Economic Community.
>1958 : The Fifth Republic is established. General de Gaulle is elected as President.
>1962 : The end of the war with Algeria, which grants them independence.
>1968 : General Strike and student demonstrations.
>1969 : De Gaulle resigns, George Pompidou succeeds him as President of the Republic.
>1974 : Valéry Giscard d'Estaing is elected as President of the country.
>1981 : François Mitterrand wins the presidential elections.
>1988 : François Mitterrand's re-election. Government of cohabitation from 1993.
>1995 : Election of Jacques Chirac to the presidency of the country. Government of cohabitation from 1997.
>2002 : Adoption of the European single currency (the Euro). Jacques Chirac is re-elected as President of the Republic.

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