Organizations / Djibouti - CIRS

International Center for Scientific Research

Organizations / Djibouti

  • Country name : Djibouti
  • Official name : Republic of Djibouti
  • System of government : Republic with a unicameral legislature
  • National anthem :


  • Area : 23,000 km²
  • Capital : Djibouti
  • Border countries : Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea.


  • Population : 768, 900 (2006).
  • Language(s) : Arabic and French (both official), Afar, Somali.
  • Religions : Muslim (94%), Christian (6%).


>The economy of Djibouti is based on the activity of services linked to its strategic geographic position. The port of Djibouti, set up as free zone, is the only economic zone in the country.
>But the economy of the country remains widely underdeveloped. Financial aid from France constitutes 60% of the financial resources of the country where more than 4 000 French soldiers are stationed.
>Agriculture is practically non-existent. Almost a quarter of the working population works in the breeding of goats and sheep. Industry is primarily based around farming.
>Transport links are good due to the success of the Addis Ababa railway.


>Since Antiquity, the geographically strategic position of Djibouti has made it a much frequented passage between Africa and Arabia.
>Third century B.C. : Arrival of immigrants from Arabia. Their descendants are the Afars, one of the two main ethnic groups of Djibouti.
>825 : Arrival of Islam. The Arabic traders control the region until 16th century.
>From 1839 : The French travel all over the region.
>1862 : Djibouti becomes a French protectorate.
>1898 : The country becomes a French colony, under the name of French Somaliland.
>1946 : The colony becomes an overseas territory (TOM).
>1958 : The status of overseas territory is retained by referendum.
>1967 : Another referendum keeps Djibouti within the French Community. The territory is renamed "French Territory of the Afars and Issas".
>1977 : Independence is granted under the name of "Republic of Djibouti".
>1981 : Institutionalization by Parliament of the country’s sole party - the RPP (Popular Gathering for the Progress) led by the president Hassan Gouled Aptidon.
>1991 : Conflicts between the Afars and the Issas, who hold the political power.
>1992 : Introduction of the multiparty system.
>1999 : Hassan Gouled Aptidon, President since the granting of independence, withdraws. Ismail Omar Guelleh wins the elections and becomes the new President.

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