Organizations / Canada - CIRS

International Center for Scientific Research

Organizations / Canada

  • Country name : Canada
  • Official name : Canada
  • System of government : confederation
  • National anthem :


  • Area : 9 976 140 km²
  • Capital : Ottawa
  • Border countries : United States


  • Population : 32,2 millions (2003)
  • Language(s) : English, French (both official).
  • Religions : Roman Catholic (46%), Protestant (36%), other (18%)


>Canada is one of the most highly industrialized countries.
>Canada is one of the world's most important fish exporters (cod, herring, salmon, flounder, crab…). The sources of the greatest farm income are livestock and dairy products. Canada is one of the world's leading agricultural exporters, especially of wheat. Forestry is a major source of Canada's wealth.
>Canada is a leading mineral producer : petroleum, natural gas, copper, gold, iron ore, coal, nickel, zinc and uranium.
>The Canadian economy is largely dependent on manufacturing. The leading products are transportation equipment, pulp and paper, processed foods, chemicals, primary and fabricated metals, electrical and electronic products, wood products and machinery.
>Tourism and financial services represent some of Canada's most important industries within the service sector.


>Prior to the arrival of Europeans in Canada, the area was inhabited by various peoples who came from Asia via the Bering Strait more than 10,000 years ago.
>The Vikings reached the shores of Canada in 1000.
>15th-16 th centuries : Second wave of European exploration. John Cabot, a Venitian in English service reached the east coast in 1497. In 1534, the Frenchman Jacques Cartier planted a cross on the Gaspé Peninsula. Subsequently, French-English rivalry dominated Canadian history until 1763.
>17th cent. : The first permanent European settlement in Canada was founded in 1605 at Port-Royal in Acadia. Quebec was founded in 1608.
>18th cent. : numerous conflicts between the French and the English colonies. The Treaty of Paris in 1763 gave England control.
>Late 18th - 19th cent. : The Constitutional Act (1791) divided Quebec into Upper Canada (present-day Ontario), predominantly British, and Lower Canada (present-day Quebec), predominantly French. The British parliament passed the Act of Union, which joined the two Canadas into the Province of Canada. In 1867, the dominion of Canada was created through the confederation of Upper and Lower Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.
>1931 : Statute of Westminster grants British dominions complete autonomy.
>1939 : Outbreak of World War II. Canada fights on the side of Britain and France.
>In the late 60s and early 70s, the country was faced with a separative movement in Quebec. In 1974 French became the official language of Quebec. In 1980, Quebec held a referendum on wether the province should seek independence from Canada ; it was defeated by 60% of the voters.
>1982 : The United Kingdom tranfers legal powers over Canada. Canada is now completely free.
>1989 : Canada and the United States agree to establish free trade.
>1992 : The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is signed, establishing a free-trade zone that consisted of Mexico, Canada and the United States.
>1995 : The Quebec referendum on secession yielded a narrow rejection of the proposal.
>1999 : The territory of Nunavut is formed in the north-west. It is the first territory in Canada to have a majority indigenous population.

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