Organizations / Algeria - CIRS

International Center for Scientific Research

Organizations / Algeria

  • Country name : Algeria
  • Official name : Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria
  • System of government : republic
  • National anthem :

Geography

  • Area : 2,381,740 sq km
  • Capital : Algiers
  • Border countries : Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Tunisia.

People

  • Population : 31,7 millions
  • Language(s) : Arabic (official), Kabyle (official), Berber dialects, French.
  • Religions : Muslim (99%), Christian and Jewish (1%)

Economy

>Algeria's economy is dominated by its export trade in petroleum and natural gas.
>Agriculture plays a declining but still important role in the Algerian economy. The principal crops are wheat, barley, oats, citrus, fruits, wine grapes, olives, tobacco, figs and dates.
>The state plays a leading role in planning the economy and owns many important industrial concerns, including the mining and financial sectors.

History

>2nd millenium B.C. : the earliest inhabitants of what is now Algeria were Berbers, tribal peoples of unknown origin.
>3rd - 2nd cent. B.C. : King Massinissa, a Berber chief allied with Rome, established the first Algerian kingdom, Numidia.
>Late 7th and early 8th cent. : Muslim Arabs conquered Algeria and ousted the Byzantines. Algeria became a province of the Umayyad caliphate.
>In the late 15th cent., Spain expelled the Muslims from its soil and soon thereafter captured the coastal cities of Algeria. With the aid of the Ottoman Empire, Algeria ended Spanish control by the mid-16th cent. Algeria then came under Ottoman rule.
>In June 1830, Charles X of France imposed a naval blockade of Algeria and invaded the country.
>Colonization by Europeans began in 1840 and accelerated after 1848, when Algeria was declared French territory.
>Algerian nationalism developed after World War I among groups of Muslims who at first wanted only equality with the Europeans.
>A radical group of Algerians seceded in 1954 from Messali's party (MTLD) and formed the National Liberation Front (FLN). A steady rise in guerilla action forced the French to bring reinforcements.
>By 1960, de Gaulle had come to recognize the inevitability of some form of Algerian independence.
>In July 1962, Algeria voted overwhelmingly for independence.
>In 1971, French oil and natural gas companies were nationalized so that the output reached record levels.
>Declining oil prices in the mid-1980s had severe economic and political consequences. Riots in 1988 led to a series of constitutional reforms in 1989 that legalized opposition parties.
>The suppression of the 1992 elections by the military, after the victory of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS), led the country to a civil war.
>Since 2000, violence has greatly diminished and is largely confined to rural areas.

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