Organizations / Zimbabwe - CIRS

International Center for Scientific Research

Organizations / Zimbabwe

  • Country name : Zimbabwe
  • Official name : Republic of Zimbabwe.
  • System of government : Parliamentary democracy.
  • National anthem :

Geography

  • Area : 390 760 km².
  • Capital : Harare.
  • Border countries : South Africa, Botswana, Mozambique, Zambia.

People

  • Population : 12,6 millions (2003)
  • Language(s) : English (official), Shona, Ndebele
  • Religions : Syncretic (50 %), Christian (25 %), Animist (24 %), Muslim and other (1 %)

Economy

>Zimbabwe's economy relies heavily on agricultural crops (such as tobacco, cotton and sugarcane) and on related manufacturing industries (textiles and sugar production).
>The country is endowed with a wide variety of mineral resources, including gold, nickel, tin, iron, chromite and coal.
>Zimbabwe has some of the most important tourist attractions in southern Africa (Victoria Falls, ruins of Great Zimbabwe…).
>The country has to face difficult economic problems (AIDS, deficits, land reform…) in its attempt to develop a market-oriented economy.

History

>The remains of Stone Age culture dating back 500,000 years have been found in Zimbabwe. It is thought that the San are the last descendants of these original inhabitants of southern and central Africa.
>5th - 10th cent. A.D. : The San were supplanted by Bantu-speaking peoples, who drove them into the Kahalari desert of Botswana and established a powerful kingdom.
>In the 1850s, the first British explorers, colonists and missionaries arrived in the country.
>1895 : Establishment of the territory Rhodesia, named after Cecil Rhodes of the British South Africa Company which was given sweeping powers in the country.
>1923 : Southern Rhodesia was annexed to the crown and became a self-governing colony.
>1965 : The Rhodesian government proclaimed a unilateral declaration of independence. Britain called the proclamation an act of rebellion and requested UN economic sanctions against Rhodesia. Black nationalist movements developped while guerilla leaders advocated revolution.
>1980 : Britain recognized the country's independence as a Republic within the Commonwealth. Rhodesia officially changed its name to Zimbabwe.
>1992 : Vote of the Land Acquisition Act which intented to facilitate the redistribution of farmland from whites, who owned 70% of the land, to black farmers.

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