Organizations / Romania - CIRS

International Center for Scientific Research

Organizations / Romania

  • Country name : Romania
  • Official name : Republic of Romania
  • System of government : Parliamentary republic
  • National anthem :


  • Area : 237 500 km²
  • Capital : Bucharest
  • Border countries : Bulgaria, Hungary, Moldova, Ukraine, State of Serbia and Montenegro


  • Population : 22,3 millions (2003)
  • Language(s) : Romanian (official), minority languages (Hungarian, German, Romani, Turkish, Yiddish)
  • Religions : Romanian Orthodox (70%), Roman Catholic (6%), Protestant (6%), unaffiliated (14%), Muslim (0,5%), other (3,5%)


>Industry and agriculture dominate the Romanian economy.
>The Romanian economy is still based largely on heavy industry. Major manufactures include steel products, machinery, transport vehicles and chemicals.
>About 65% of the total area of Romania is used for pasturage and cultivation (grains, potatoes, grapes, sugar beets…). Forestry plays a significant role in Romanian agriculture.


>The territory that is now Romania first appeared in history as Dacia, whose inhabitants were the Getae, originally from the region of Thrace, in Greece.
>In the 2nd and 3rd cent. A.D., Dacia was a Roman province, conquered by Roman emperor Trajan.
>From the 3rd to the 13th century, the Daco-Roman people were subjected to successive invasions by the Goths, Huns, Avars, Bulgars, Magyars and Mongols.
>14th cent. : The history of the Romanian people became that of the two Romanian principalities - Moldavia and Walachia - and of Transylvania (a Hungarian dependency).
>By the 16th century, the main Romanian principalities of Moldavia and Walachia had become satellites within the Ottoman Empire. At the end of the 16th century, a Walachian prince, Michael the Brave, led revolt against the Ottomans and succeeded in bringing Walachia, Moldavia and Transylvania under his rule. He was the first to combine the three territories to form Romania.
>1857 : The councils of Moldavia and Walachia voted for union under the name Romania.
>At the Congress of Berlin (1878), Romania gained full independence and was proclaimed a kingdom in 1881.
>At the start of World War I, Romania proclaimed its neutrality, but later joined the Allied side. The Armistice of Nov., 11, 1918 gave Romania vast territories, doubling its size (Bessarabia, Transylvania, Bukovina…).
>Soviet occupation following World War II led to the formation of a communist "people's republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king.
>Under the rule of Nicolae Ceausescu (1965-1989), Romania distanced itself from the USSR, but the Communist orthodoxy was strictly enforced in domestic affairs.
>An army-assisted rebellion in Dec. 1989 led to Ceausescu's overthrow. The victory of the revolution opened the way to a re-establishment of democracy and for the return to a market economy.
>In June 1995, the country applied for membership in the European Union.
>In 2000 former president Iliescu returned to power.

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