Staff Astronomer Emeritus at the Observatories (Pasadena, CA) of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, DC, USA.
stellar astronomy and observational cosmology
Scientific Achievements :
Allan R. Sandage has defined the fields of observational cosmology and extragalactic astronomy for most of the last forty years. Modern cosmological research had its beginnings with the great work of Edwin Hubble in the 1920's and 1930's, which established what were then called spiral nebulae as separate distant "island universes", i.e., galaxies.
Sandage has quantified the expansion of the universe in many important ways. In particular, in close collaboration with Dr. Gustaf Tammann of the University of Basel, Switzerland, he relentlessly pursued the value of the Hubble Constant, which determines the rate of expansion, through detailed observations of galaxies. He made the essential measurements of globular cluster stars to determine their ages, and showed the correspondence with the expansion age of the universe from the Hubble Constant.
Sandage was the first to recognize the existence of quasars without strong radio emission, leading the way to the discovery of some of the most distant objects in the universe. He has thoroughly explored the observational characteristics of galaxies, their stellar populations, their clustering properties, and their evolutionary history. He led the first major redshift survey of galaxies, creating a three-dimensional map of the galaxy distribution, and used it to explore the dynamics of the local Universe. He developed new observational techniques and opened new areas of inquiry in fields ranging from the pulsations of stars, to tests of cosmological models at great distances, to searches for quasars.
Eddington Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (1963)
Pope Pius IX gold medal (1966)
US National Medal of Science (1971)
Henry Norris Russell Lectureship of the American Astronomical Society (1972)
Elliot Cresson Medal of The Franklin Institute (1973)
Bruce Medalist (1975)
ADION medal of the Association pour le Développement International de l'Observatoire de Nice (1988)
Jansky Prize of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (1991)
Crafoord Prize of the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences (1991)
Cosmology Prize of the Peter Gruber Foundation (2000).
Sandage, A. 1999. Bias properties of extragalactic distance indicators VIII: H0 From distance-limited luminosity class and morphological type-specific luminosity functions for Sb, Sbc, and Sc galaxies calibrated using Cepheids, Astrophys. J. 527, 479.
Sandage, A. 1975. The redshift-distance relation VIII: magnitudes and redshifts of southern galaxies in groups: a further mapping of the local velocity field and an estimate of the deceleration parameter, Astrophys. J. 202, 563.
Eggen, O. J., D. Lynden-Bell, and A. Sandage. 1962. Evidence from the motions of old stars that the galaxy collapsed, Astrophys. J. 136, 748.
Sandage, A. 1961. The ability of the 200-inch telescope to discriminate between selected world models, Astrophys. J. 133, 355.
Sandage, A. 1957. Observational approach to evolution III: semi-empirical evolution tracks for M67 and M3, Astrophys. J. 126, 326.