DIJKSTRA, HENK A. / Earth sciences / Researchers

International Center for Scientific Research


Earth sciences / DIJKSTRA, HENK A.



Professor of Dynamical Oceanography, Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Research interests

His main research interests are in the stability of ocean currents and the physics of climate variability.

His research group tries to make a contribution to understand the physics of the large-scale ocean circulation and the role of the ocean in the climate system through fundamental studies using concepts and methods from dynamical systems theory.

Prizes and awards

1996 : NWO-PIONIER award on the project: Stability and Variability of the Climate System

2002 : Member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences and Arts (KNAW)

2005 : Lewis Fry Richardson Medal, European Geosiences Union. Citation : "for his outstanding
work in developing the nonlinear dynamical systems approach to oceanography and especially for his study of the role of ocean circulation in palaeoclimate".


Journals and book chapters (peer reviewed)

Dijkstra, H.A. & J.D. Neelin, Imperfections of the thermohaline circulation: Latitudinal asymmetry and preferred northern sinking, J. Climate 13, 366-382, (2000).

52. Van der Vaart, P.C.F. & Dijkstra, H.A. and F.F. Jin, The Pacific Cold Tongue and the ENSO mode: unified theory within the ZC-model, J. Atm. Sciences., 57, 967-988,(2000).

M.J. Molemaker & Dijkstra, H.A., Multiple equilibria and stability of the North-Atlantic wind-driven ocean circulation, in Numerical Methods for Bifurcation Problems and Large Scale Dynamical Systems., ed. E. Doedel and L. Tuckerman, IMA Volumes in Mathematics and its Applications, Volume 119, 303-318, (2000).

M.J. Molemaker & Dijkstra, H.A., Stability of a cold core eddy in the presence of convection: hydrostatic versus non-hydrostatic modelling, J. Phys. Oceanography, 30, 475-494, (2000).

M.J. Schmeits & Dijkstra, H.A., The physics of the 9-month variability of the Gulf Stream: combining data and dynamical systems analysis, J. Phys. Oceanography, 30, 1967-1987 (2000).

Weijer, W., Ruijter, de W.P.M. & Dijkstra, H.A., Stability of the Atlantic overturning circulation: competition between Bering Street freshwater flux and Agulhas heat and salt sources, J. Phys. Oceanography, 31, 2385–2402, (2001).

Katsman, C. A., Drijfhout, S. S. & Dijkstra, H.A., The interaction of a deep western boundary current and the wind-driven gyres as a cause of low-frequency variability, J. Phys. Oceanography, 31, 2321–2339, (2001).

Dijkstra, H.A. & De Ruijter, W.P.M., On the physics of the Agulhas Current: steady retroflection regimes, J. Phys. Oceanography, 31, 2971-2985, (2001).

Schmeits, M.J. & Dijkstra, H.A., Bimodal behavior of the Kuroshio and the Gulf Stream, J. Phys. Oceanography, 31, 3435-3456, (2001).

Dijkstra, H.A. & De Ruijter, W.P.M., Barotropic instabilities of the Agulhas Current system and their relation to ring formation, J. Mar. Research, 59, 517-533, (2001).

61. Weijer, W. & Dijkstra, H. A., A bifurcation study of the three-dimensional thermohaline ocean circulation: the double-hemispheric case, J. Mar. Research, 59, 599-631,(2001).

Nauw, J. & Dijkstra, H.A., The origin of low-frequency variability of double-gyre wind-driven flows, J. Mar. Research, 59, 567-597 , (2001).

Dijkstra, H.A. Oksuzoglu, H., Wubs, F.W. & Botta, E. F. F. A fully implicit model of the three-dimensional thermohaline ocean circulation, J. Comp. Physics, 176, 685-715,

Dijkstra, H. A. and G. Burgers, Fluid Mechanics of El Ni˜no variability, Ann. Review of Fluid Mechanics, 34, 531-558, (2002).

Raa, te L. A. & Dijkstra, H.A., Instability of the thermohaline circulation on interdecadal time scales, J. Phys. Oceanography, 32, 138-160, (2002).

Kooijman, S. A. L. M., Dijkstra, H. A., & Kooi, B. W., Light induced mass turnover in a mono-species community of mixotrophs, J. Theoretical Biology, 214: 233-254 (2002).

Simonnet, E. & Dijkstra, H. A., Spontaneous generation of low-frequency modes of variability in the wind-driven ocean circulation, J. Phys. Oceanography, 32, 1747–1762(2002).

Avoird, van der E. and Dijkstra, H. A. and Nauw, J. & Schuurmans, C., Nonlinearly induced low-frequency variability in the midlatitude coupled ocean-atmosphere system, Climate Dynamics, 19, 303-320, (2002).

De Kloe, J. and Van der Steen, A. and Oksuzoglu, H. and Dijkstra, H. A., A fully implicit parallel ocean model using MUMPS, J. Supercomputing, 23, 167-183, (2002).

P. C. F. Van der Vaart, H. Schuttelaars, D. Calvete & Dijkstra, H. A., Instability of time-dependent wind-driven ocean gyres, Phys. Fluids, 14 (10), 3601–3615, (2002).

Rittemard, N. and Zwagers, T. & Dijkstra, H. A., Was there a wind-driven Tethys Circulglobal Current in the Late Cretaceous?, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 203, 741–753, (2002).

M. J. Schmeits & Dijkstra, H. A., Intra-annual variability of the ocean circulation in the Kuroshio region, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C12), 3235, doi:10.1029/2001JC001073, (2002).

Schouten, M. W., W. P. M. de Ruijter, P.J. van Leeuwen, and H. A. Dijkstra, An oceanic teleconnection between the equatorial and southern Indian Ocean. Geophys.
Res. Lett., 29, 10.1029/2001GL014542, (2002).

C. Katsman, P. van der Vaart, Dijkstra, H. A. & W.P.M de Ruijter, On the stability of multi-layer ocean vortices: a parameter study including realistic Gulf Stream and Agulhas Rings, J. Phys. Oceanography, 33, 1197–1218, (2003).

A.W. Omta & Dijkstra, H. A., A physical mechanism for the Atlantic-Pacific flow reversal in the early Miocene, Global and Planetary Change, 36, 265–276, (2003).

L.A. te Raa & Dijkstra, H. A., Stability changes of the North Atlantic climate system on multidecadal time scales, J. Climate, 32, 138-160, (2003).

Dijkstra, W. Weijer & J.D. Neelin, Imperfections of the three-dimensional thermohaline ocean circulation: Hysteresis and unique state regimes, J. Phys. Ocean., 33, 2796-2814, (2003).

W. Weijer and Dijkstra, H.A., Multiple oscillatory modes of the global ocean circulation. J. Phys. Oceanography, 33, 2197-2213, (2003).

W.Weijer, Dijkstra, H.A., H. Oksuzoglu, F.W.Wubs and A..C de Niet, A fully-implicit model of the global ocean circulation. J. Comp. Physics, 192, 452-470, (2003).

L.A. te Raa and Dijkstra, H.A., Modes of internal thermohaline variability in a singlehemispheric ocean basin, J. Mar. Res., 61, 491-516, (2003).

Dijkstra, H. A. and Weijer, W., Stability of the global ocean circulation: the connection of equilibria in a hierarchy of models, J. Marine Research, 61, 725–743, (2003).

Selten, F., Kliphuis, M. and Dijkstra, H. A. , Transient coupled ensemble climate simulations to study changes in the probability of extreme events, Clivar Exchanges,28, 10–12, (2003).

Dijkstra, H. A., L.A. te Raa and Weijer, W., A systematic approach to determine thresholds of the thermohaline circulation. Tellus, 56, 362–370, (2004).

Nauw, J.J., Dijkstra, H.A. and Simonnet, E., Regimes of low-frequency variability in a three-layer quasi-geostrophic ocean model, J. Marine Research, 62, 684-719, (2004).

Mu Mu, Sun Liang and Dijkstra , H.A., The sensitivity and stability of the ocean’s thermohaline circulation to finite amplitude perturbations, J. Physical Oceanography, 34, 2305-2315, (2004).

J. J. Nauw, Dijkstra, H. A. and E. Chassignet, Frictionally induced asymmetries in wind-driven flows, J. Physical Oceanography, 34, 2057-2072, (2004).

Selten, F. M., Branstator, G. Dijkstra, H. A. and Kliphuis, M., Tropical origins for recent and future Northern Hemisphere climate change, Geophys. Res. Letters, 31,No.21,L21205, 10.1029/2004GL020739, (2004).

Raa, te L., Dijkstra, H. A. and Gerrits, J., Identification of the mechanism of interdecadal
variability in the North Atlantic Ocean, J. Physical Oceanography, 34, 2792-2807, (2004).

Von der Heydt, A. and Dijkstra, H. A., Flow Reorganizations in the Panama Seaway – A Cause for the Demise of Miocene Corals?, Geophys. Res. Letters , 32, L02609, doi:10.2609/2004GL020990, (2005).

Dijkstra, H. A. and Weijer, W., Stability of the global ocean circulation: Basic bifurcation
diagrams, J. Physical Oceanography, 35, 933-948, (2005).

Dijkstra, H.A. & Ghil, M., Low-frequency variability of the ocean circulation: a dynamical
systems approach. Reviews of Geophysics, 43, RG3002, doi:10.1029/2002RG000122.

Simonnet, E., Ghil, M. and Dijkstra, H.A., Homoclinic bifurcations in the barotropic Quasi-Geostrophic double-gyre circulation, J. Marine Research, 63, 931-956, (2005).

Zelle, H., Oldenborgh, G. J., Burgers, G. and Dijkstra , H.A., El Ni˜no and Greenhouse warming: Results from ensemble simulations with the NCAR CCSM, J. Climate, 18, 46694683, (2005).

Terwisscha van Scheltinga, A. and Dijkstra, H. A., Nonlinear data-assimilation using implicit models, Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 12, 515-525, (2005).

Gruais, I., Rittemard, N. and Dijkstra, H.A., A priori estimations of a global homotopy residue continuation method, Nonlinear Functional Analysis and Optimization, 26, 4-5, 507-521 (2005).

Dijkstra, H. A., L.A. te Raa, M. Schmeits and J. Gerrits, On the physics of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, Ocean Dynamics, 56, 36-50, (2006).

Dijkstra, H. A., The ENSO phenomenon: theory and mechanisms, Adv. Geosciences, 6, 3 - 15, (2006).

Omta, A. W., J. Bruggeman, S. A. L. M. Kooijman, and H. A. Dijkstra , Biological carbon pump revisited: Feedback mechanisms between climate and the Redfield ratio, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L14613, doi:10.1029/2006GL026213, (2006).

Von der Heydt, A. and Dijkstra, H.A., The Effect of Ocean Gateways on the Global Ocean Circulation in the Late Oligocene and Early Miocene, Paleoceanography, 21, PA1011, doi:10.1029/2005PA001149, (2006).

Dijkstra, H. A., On the interaction of SST modes in the North Atlantic Ocean, J. Physical Oceanography, 36, 286-299, (2006).

Wubs, F., De Niet, A. and Dijkstra, H. A., The Performance of Implicit Ocean models on B- and C-grids, J. Comp. Physics, 211, 210-228, (2006).

Dijkstra, H. A., Turbulence and Coherent Structures in the Ocean, in Turbulence in Fluids and Plasmas, editors M. Schatz and H. Putzmann, World Scientific, (2006).

J. O. Sewall, R. S. W. van de Wal, K. van der Zwan, C. van Oosterhout, Dijkstra, H. A. and C. R. Scotese. Climate model boundary conditions for four Cretaceous time slices, Climate of the Past, 3, 647–657, (2007).

Von der Heydt, A. and Dijkstra, H.A., Localization of multidecadal variability: I.
Cross equatorial transport and interbasin exchange., J. Phys. Oceanography, 37, 2401-
2414 (2007).

Dijkstra, H.A. and A. von der Heydt, Localization of multidecadal variability: II. The
spectral origin of multidecadal modes. J. Phys. Oceanography, 37, 2415-2428 (2007).

Dijkstra, H.A., Characterization of the multiple equilibrium regime in a global ocean model. Tellus, 59A, 695-705 (2007).

De Niet, A., Wubs, F., Terwisscha van Scheltinga, A. and Dijkstra, H. A., A tailored
solver for bifurcation of ocean-climate models, J. Comp. Physics, 227, 654–679, (2007).

Weijer, W., Gille, S., Vevier, F. and Dijkstra, H.A., Multiple oscillatory modes of the Argentine Basin, I. Statistical Analysis, J. Phys. Oceanography, in press, (2007).

Weijer, W., Gille, S., Vevier, F. and Dijkstra, H.A., Multiple oscillatory modes of the Argentine Basin, II. The spectral origin of the basin modes. J. Phys. Oceanography, (2007).

Dijkstra, H. A., Regimes of wind-driven ocean flows, in Frontiers in Turbulence and Coherent Structures, editors J. Denier and J. S. Frederiksen, World Scientific, p121-148,

Omta, A. W., and Kooijman S. A. L. M. and Dijkstra, H. A., The influence of mesoscale eddies on the soft-tissue carbon pump. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 112, C11009, doi:10.1029/2007JC004189, (2007).

Simonnet, E, Dijkstra, H. A. and Ghil, M. Bifurcation analysis of ocean, atmosphere and climate models, Handbook of Numerical Analysis General Editor: Philippe G. Ciarlet; Special Volume on Computational Methods for the Ocean and the Atmosphere.
Guest editors: Roger Temam and Joseph Tribbia, accepted, (2007).

Dijkstra, H. A., TERAFLOP Computing and Ensemble Climate Model Simulations, in High Performance Computing on Vector Systems, editors M. Resch et al., Springer, 35-42, (2007).

Terwisscha van Scheltinga, A. and Dijkstra, H. A., A comparison between explicit and implicit variational data-assimilation , Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, in press,(2007).

Terwisscha van Scheltinga, A. and Dijkstra, H. A., Efficient estimation of time-mean states of ocean models using 4D-Var and implicit time-stepping, Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, in press, (2007).

Omta, A. W., Dijkstra, H. A. and S. A. L. M. Kooijman, Critical turbulence revisited: the impact of submesoscale vertical mixing on plankton patchiness. J. Mar. Research, (2007).

Bernsen, E. and Dijkstra, H. A., A method to reduce the spinup time of ocean models.
Ocean Modeling, (2007).

Dijkstra, H.A., Scaling of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation in a global
ocean model. (2007).

Von der Heydt, A. and Dijkstra, H.A., The effect of gateways on ocean circulation patterns in the Cenozoic, Global Planetary Change, (2007).

Palastanga, V., Dijkstra, H.A. and W. P. M. de Ruijter, Inertially induced connections between subgyres in the South-Indian Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanography, (2007).

Te Raa, L. A. and Van Oldenborgh, G. J. and Dijkstra, H.A. and Philip, S. J. Frequency-dependent effects of the Atlantic meridional overturning on the tropical Pacific Ocean, Geophys. Res. Letters, (2007).


Dijkstra, H.A., Nonlinear Physical Oceanography, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Atmospheric and Oceanographic Library Series, 480 pp., Dordrecht, The Netherlands, November 1, 2000.

Dijkstra, H.A., Nonlinear Physical Oceanography, 2nd revised and extended edition, 537 pp., Springer New York, April 15, 2005.

Dijkstra, H.A. Dynamical Oceanography, A Mathematical Introduction, 350 pp. Springer,
New York, in press, (2007)

Dijkstra, H.A., Nonlinear Climate Dynamics, in preparation, Cambridge Univ. Press.

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