Université Libre de Bruxelles,
Service de Physique Théorique,
Professors Francois Englert, in collaboration with Professor Robert Brout and Peter W. Higgs, have discovered how mass can be generated for gauge particles in the presence of a local abelian and non-abelian gauge symmetry. This was demonstrated by them, both classically and quantum mechanically, successfully avoiding theorems initiated by J. Goldstone while indication that the theory would remain well defined (renormalizable). Similar ideas have been developed in the domain of condensed matter physics.
The work has deeply shaped the understanding of the fundamental interactions. It has allowed to unify the long-range electromagnetic forces with the short-range weak ones. This was manifested in the works of Glashow, Salam and Weinberg, determining the laws of the electro-weak forces. The discovery of Brout, Englert and Higgs, was essential to the proof of G. ‘t Hooft that the theory with massive gauge particles is well defined; and subsequent calculations in that theory, verified experimentally, culminating in the discovery of the massive W and Z particles.
Mass generation has been the cornerstone of many key theoretical results, including cosmology at high temperature and density, grand unified theories and the possible realization of the Dirac monopole. Mass generation is independent of the detailed short-distance physics. It could be driven, among others, by an elementary scalar, or by an effective composite scalar. Near future experiments are constructed to shed light on this fundamental question. The above indicates the far- reaching fundamental nature of the Brout-Englert-Higgs contribution.
- 1977 A. WETREMS Prize in Mathematical and Physical Sciences, awarded by the Royal Belgium Academy “for his work on spontaneous symmetry breaking in elementary particule physics”.
- 1978 First award of the International Gravity Contest, awarded by “Gravity Research Foundation” (with R. Brout and E. Gunzig) for the essay “The Causal Universe” . This work introduced the inflation mechanism in cosmology.
- 1982 FRANCQUI Prize, awarded by the Francqui Foundation once every four years in exact sciences “for his contribution to the theoretical understanding of spontaneous symmetry breaking in the physics of fondamental interactions, where, with Robert Brout, he was the first to show that spontaneous symmetry breaking in gauge theories gives mass to the gauge particules”, “for his extensive contributions in other domains, such as solid state physics, statistical
mechanics, quantum field theory, general relativity and cosmology”, “for the originality and the fundamental importance of these achievements”.
- 1997 High Energy and Particle Physics Prize, awarded by the European Physical Society (with R. Brout and P.W. Higgs) “for formulating for the first time a self-consistent theory of charged massive vector bosons which became the foundation of the electroweak theory of elementary particles”.
- 2004 WOLF Prize in Physics, awarded by the Wolf Foundation (with R. Brout and P.W. Higgs) “for pioneering work that has led to the insight of mass generation, whenever a local gauge symmetry is realized asymmetrically in the world of sub-atomic particles”.
- 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics, jointly with Peter W. Higgs, \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Large Hadron Collider\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"
A. Casher and F. Englert, Entropy Generation in Quantum Gravity and Black Hole Remnants, gr-qc/9404025; published in “String Theory, Quantum Gravity and the Unification of the Fundamental Interactions” Ed. by M. Bianchi, F. Fucito, E. Marinari, A. Sagnotti, World Scientific and dedicated to F. Englert on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday (1993).
F. Englert, S. Massar and R. Parentani, Source Vacuum Fluctuations of Black Hole Radiance, gr-qc/9404026; Classical and Quantum Gravity 11, 2919 (1994).
F. Englert and B. Reznik, Entropy Generation by Tunneling in 2+1-Gravity, grqc/
9401010; Physical Review D 50, 2692 (1994).
F. Englert, The Black Hole History in Tamed Vacuum, gr-qc/9408005; (1994).
F. Englert Operator Weak Values and Black Hole Complementarity, gr-qc/9502039; published in “Proceedings of The Oskar Klein Centenary (19-21 September 1944)” Ed. by U. Lindstr¨om, World Scientific (1995).
F. Englert, L. Houart and P. Windey, The Black Hole Entropy Can Be Smaller than A/4, hep-th/9503202; Physics Letters B372, 111 (1996).
F. Englert, L. Houart and P. Windey, Black Hole Entropy and String Instantons ,
hep-th/9507061; Nuclear Physics B458 , 231 (1996).
F. Englert, On the Black Hole Unitarity Issue, hep-th/9705115, presented at the
Workshop on Frontiers in Field Theory, Quantum Gravity and String Theory, December 1996, Puri (India), to be published in the proceedings of the conference (1996)
F. Englert, L. Houart and P. Windey, Thermodynamics of Black Hole in Presence of
String Instantons , hep-th/9606179; published in the “Proceedings of the 2nd International
A.D. Sakharov Conference on Physics Moscow, (20-23 May 1996)” Ed. by I.M. Dremlin
and A.M. Semikhatov, World Scientific (1997).
A. Casher, F. Englert, N. Itzhaki, S. Massar and R. Parentani, Black Hole Horizon
Fluctuations, hep-th/9606106; Nuclear Physics B484 ,419 (1997).
Y. Aharonov, R. Brout and F. Englert, La Notion de Temps; published in “Le vieillissement”,
Laus Medicinae, ULB University Press (1997).
R. Argurio, F. Englert and L. Houart, Intersection Rules for p-Branes, hep-th/9701042;
Physics Letters B398, 61 (1997).
R. Argurio, F. Englert, L. Houart and P. Windey, On the Opening of Branes, hepth/
9704190; Physics Letters B408, 151 (1997).
F. Englert and E. Rabinovici, Statistical Entropy of Schwarzschild Black Holes, hepth/
9801048; Physics Letters B426, 264 (1998).
R. Argurio, F. Englert and L. Houart, Statistical Entropy of the Four Dimensional
Schwarzschild Black Hole, hep-th/9801053; Physics Letters B426, 275 (1998).
R. Brout and F. Englert, Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in Gauge Theories: a
Historical Survey, hep-th/9802142; “Proceedings of the International Europhysics Conference
on High Energy Physics, Jerusalem, Israel, 19-25 Aug. 1997” Ed. by Lellouch,
Daniel; Mikenberg, Giora and Rabinovici, Eliezer - Springer, Berlin, (1999).
F. Englert, Primordial Inflation, hep-th/9911185; “Lectures on Basics and Highlights
of Fundamental Physics” Proceedings of the International School of Subnuclear Physics
Vol 37 516, Ed. by A. Zichichi, World Scientific (1999).
K. Bautier, F. Englert, M. Rooman and P. Spindel The Fefferman-Graham ambiguity
and ADS Black Holes, hep-th/0002156; Physics Letters B479, 291 (2000).
F. Englert, L. Houart and A. Taormina, Brane Fusion and the Emergence of Fermionic
Strings, hep-th/0106235; JHEP 0108, 013, (2001).
F. Englert, A Brief Course in Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking 2. Modern Times:
The BEH Mechanism. Presented at Corfu Summer Institute on Elementary Particle
Physics (Corfu 2001), Corfu, Greece, 31 Aug - 20 Sep 2001, hep-th/0203097, (2002).
F. Englert, L. Houart and A. Taormina, The Bosonic Ancestor of Closed and Open
Fermionic Strings. Contributed to Meeting on Strings and Gravity: Tying the Forces
Together, Brussels, Belgium, 19-21 Oct 2001, hep-th/0203098, (2002).
Auttakit Chattaraputi, F. Englert, L. Houart and A. Taormina, The bosonic mother
of fermionic D-branes, hep-th/0207238; JHEP 0209, 037, (2002).
Auttakit Chattaraputi, F. Englert, L. Houart and A. Taormina, Fermionic subspaces
of the bosonic string. To appear in the proceedings of the Workshop on the Quantum
Structure of Space-time and the Geometrical Nature of the Fundamental Interactions,
Leuven, Belgium, 13-19 Sep 2002, and of 6th International Workshop on Conformal Field
Theory and Integrable Systems, Chernogolovka, Russia, 15-21 Sep 2002. e-Print Archive:
F. Englert, L. Houart, A. Taormina and P. West. The symmetry of M-Theories,
hep-th/0304206; JHEP 0309, 020, (2003).
F. Englert, L. Houart and P. West. Intersection rules, dynamics and symmetries
hep-th/0307024; JHEP 0308, 025, (2003).
F. Englert, L. Houart. G+++ Invariant formulation of gravity and M-theories: exact
BPS solutions; hep-th/0311255; JHEP 0401, 002, (2004).
F. Englert, L. Houart. From brane dynamics to a Kac-Moody invariant formulation
of M-theories;to appear in the proceedings of 27th Johns Hopkins Workshop on Current
Problems in Particle Theory: Symmetries and Mysteries of M-Theory, Goteborg, Sweden,
24-26 Aug 2003 hep-th/0402076 (2004).
F. Englert, L. Houart. G+++ Invariant formulation of gravity and M-theories: exact
intersecting brane solutions; hep-th/0405082; JHEP 0405, 059, (2004).
F. Englert, M. Henneaux and L. Houart. From very-extended to overextended gravity
and M-theories, hep-th/0412184; JHEP 0502, 070, (2005).
F. Englert, Broken symmetry and Yang-Mills theory, in “50 years of Yang-Mills
theory”, editor G.’t Hooft, World Scientific, hep-th/0406162, (2005).