HAWKING, STEPHEN W. S.W. / Astronomy / Researchers

International Center for Scientific Research


Astronomy / HAWKING, STEPHEN W. S.W.



Theoretical physicist considered as "one of the most brilliant theoretical physicists since Einstein'".
Head of the Relativity Group in the Department of Applied Mathematics & Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
Holder of the Lucasian Chair of Natural Philosophy.

Research interests

Stephen Hawking has worked on the basic laws which govern the universe. With Roger Penrose he showed that Einstein's General Theory of Relativity implied space and time would have a beginning in the Big Bang and an end in black holes. These results indicated it was necessary to unify General Relativity with Quantum Theory, the other great Scientific development of the first half of the 20th Century. One consequence of such a unification that he discovered was that black holes should not be completely black, but should emit radiation and eventually evaporate and disappear. Another conjecture is that the universe has no edge or boundary in imaginary time. This would imply that the way the universe began was completely determined by the laws of science.

Prizes and awards

Hawking has received recognition of his work numerous times, including the Eddington Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society, the Heinemann Prize of the American Institute of Physics and the American Physical Society, the Maxwell Medal and Prize, and the Einstein Medal.


Author of the best seller A Brief History of Time (1988) and his later book, Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays.
He has also published The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time (1973; co-authored with G F R Ellis), Superspace and Supergravity (1981), The Very Early Universe (1983), General Relativity: An Einstein Centenary Survey (co-authored with W Israel), and 300 Years of Gravity (co-authored with W Israel).

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