JUNGERS, WILLIAM L. / Anthropology / Researchers

International Center for Scientific Research


Anthropology / JUNGERS, WILLIAM L.



Distinguished Teaching Professor and Chair
Department of Anatomical Sciences at Stony Brook University School of Medicine, NY, USA.

Research interests

Primate paleontology and human evolution.
Biomechanics and functional morphology (ecomorphology).
Morphometrics and scaling.

Considered among the best evolutionary morphologists in the world, Dr. Jungers has traveled to far corners of the globe investigating the function and structure of living and fossil primates. His research focuses on the evolution of human locomotion, body size, and biomechanical scaling, and vertebrate paleontology.

He is also part of an international team involved in the analysis of the “hobbit” fossils (Homo floresiensis) from Indonesia. The discovery of this prehistoric “hobbit” has been featured in recent documentaries on public television. The original discoverers of the fossil contacted Dr. Jungers and his colleague, Dr. Susan Larson, to help them understand the functional significance of the odd skeletons.

Research also continues in Madagascar. New species continue to be discovered and diagnosed, improved reconstructions of paleo-communities are now available, range extensions of living species have been documented, and life histories are being revealed along with dietary and positional preferences. Extinction of the giant lemurs is now seen as a slow, synergistic process implicating habitat destruction, hunting and climate change. Giant lemurs co-existed with the earliest human colonizers of Madagascar for well over a millenium.

Prizes and awards

Phi Beta Kappa (Oberlin College)
Alfred P. Sloan Scholar, Oberlin College (1966-1970)
Comfort-Starr Award in Sociology-Anthropology, Oberlin College (1970)
Danforth Foundation Graduate Fellow (1971-1975)
Rackham Graduate School Fellowship, University of Michigan (1976)
Aescupalius Award in Recognition of Outstanding Teaching, SBU (1994)
Dean’s Award for Excellence in Graduate Mentoring, SBU (2002)
Excellence in Teaching Award - SOM (1986, 1990, 1992, 1994, 2000, 2001, 2003, 2004)
President’s Award for Excellence in Teaching (2006-2007)
Chancellor’s Award for Excellence in Teaching (2006-2007)
Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society (2010)


Books and Edited Volumes:

Les Systemes Locomoteurs chez les Primates. Annales des Science Naturelles, Zoologie, Paris, Volume 5 (2-3):52-180. (edited with F. K. Jouffroy and H. Ishida).

Size and Scaling in Primate Biology. (W. L. Jungers, ed.), Advances in Primatology Series, Plenum Publ. Co., N.Y.

Reconstructing Behavior in the Primate Fossil Record (J.M. Plavcan, R.F. Kay, W.L. Jungers, and C.P. van Schaik, eds.), Plenum Press, N.Y.

Paleoanthropological Research at Liang Bua, Indonesia. (M. Morwood and W. L. Jungers, eds), J. Human Evolution Special Issue 57: 437-650.

Published Articles:


Demes, B., Jungers, W.L., and Walker, C. Cortical bone distribution in the femoral neck of strepsirhine primates. J. Human Evol. 39: 367-379.


Godfrey, L.R., Samonds, K.E., Jungers, W.L., and Sutherland, M.R. Teeth, brains, and primate life histories. Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop. 114: 192-214.

Godfrey, L.R., Samonds, K.E., Jungers, W.L., and Sutherland, M.R. Teeth, brains, and
primate life histories. Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop. 114: 192-214.

Grine, F.E., Stevens, N.J. and Jungers, W.L. An evaluation of dental radiograph accuracy in the measurement of enamel thickness. Arch. Oral Biol. 46: 1117-1125.


Jungers, W.L., Godfrey, L.R., Simons, E.L., Wunderlich, R.E., Richmond, B.G., and Chatrath, P.S. Ecomorphology and behavior of giant extinct lemurs from Madagascar. In: J.M. Plavcan et al. (eds.), Reconstructing Behavior in the Primate Fossil Record, Plenum Press, NY, pp. 371- 411.

Ross, C.F., Lockwood, C, Fleagle, J.G., and Jungers, W.L. Adaptation and behavior in the primate fossil record. In: J.M. Plavcan et al. (eds.), Reconstructing Behavior in the Primate Fossil Record, Plenum Press, NY, pp.1- 41

Plavcan, J.M., Kay, R.F., Jungers, W.L., and van Schaik, C.P. Conclusions: Reconstructing in
the fossil record. In: J.M. Plavcan et al. (eds.), Reconstructing Behavior in the Primate Fossil Record, Plenum Press, NY, pp. 413-428.

Godfrey, L.R. and Jungers, W.L. Quaternary fossil lemurs. In: W. Hartwig (ed), The Primate Fossil Record. Cambridge University Press, pp. 97-122.

Rafferty, K.L., Teaford, M.F, and Jungers, W.L. Molar microwear of subfossil lemurs: improving the resolution of dietary inferences. J. Human Evol. 43: 645-657.

Schwartz, G.T., Samonds, K.E., Godfrey, L.R., Jungers, W.L., and Simons, E.L. Dental microstructure and life history in subfossil Malagasy lemurs. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 99: 6124- 6129.


Doran, D.M., Jungers, W.L., Sugiyama, Y., Fleagle, J.G., and Heesy, C.P. Multivariate and phylogenetic approaches to understanding chimpanzee and bonobo behavioral diversity. In: G. Hohmann, L. Marchant and C. Boesch (eds.), Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 14-34.

Stumpf, R.M., Polk, J.D., Oates, J.F., Jungers, W.L., Heesy, C.P., Groves, C.P., and Fleagle, J.G. Patterns of diversity in gorilla cranial morphology. In: A. Taylor and M. Goldsmith (eds.), Gorilla Biology: A Multidisciplinary Perspective. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 35-61.

Godfrey, L.R., Samonds, K.E., Jungers, W.L., and Sutherland, M.R. Dental development and primate life histories. In: P.M.Kappeler and M.E. Pereira (eds.), Primate Life Histories and Socioecology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 177-202.

Godfrey, L.. R. and Jungers, W.L. Subfossil lemurs. In: S.M. Goodman and J.P. Benstead (eds),The Natural History of Madagascar, University of Chicago Press, Chicag, pp. 1247- 1252.

Jungers, W.L., Pokempner, A.A., Kay, R.F. and Cartmill, M. Hypoglossal canal size in living hominoids and the evolution of human speech. Human Biology 75: 473-484.


Godfrey, L.R., Samonds, K.E, Jungers, W.L., Sutherland, M.R. and Irwin, M.T. Ontogenetic Correlates of diet in Malagasy lemurs. Amer. J. Phys.Anthrop. 123: 250-276.

Godfrey, L.R. and Jungers, W.L. The extinct sloth lemurs of Madagascar. Evolutionary Anthropology 12: 252-263.

Burney, D.A., Burney, L.P., Godfrey, L.R., Jungers, W.L., Goodman, S.M., Wright, H.T., and Jull, A.J.T. A chronology for late prehistoric Madagascar. J. Human Evol. 47: 25-63.

Semprebon, G.M., Godfrey, L.R., Solunias, N., Sutherland, M.R., and Jungers, W.L. Can low- magnification steromicroscopy reveal diet? J. Human Evol. 47: 114-144.

Godfrey, L.R., Semprebon, G.M., Jungers, W.L., Sutherland, M.R., Simons, E.L., and Solounias, N. Dental use wear in extinct lemurs: evidence of diet and niche differentiation. J. Human Evol. 47: 145-169.

Godfrey, L.R., Simons, E.L., Jungers, W.L., DeBlieux, D.D., and Chathrat, P.S. New discovery of subfossil Hapalemur simus, the greater bamboo lemur, in western Madagascar. Lemur News 9: 9-11.


Jungers, W.L., Lemelin, P., Godfrey, L.R., Wunderlich, R.E., Burney, D.A., Simons, E.L., Chatrath,
P.S., James, H.F., and Randria, G.F.N. The hands and feet of Archaeolemur: metrical affinities and their functional significance. J. Human Evol. 49: 36-55.

Jungers, W.L. Comment on RJ Smith\'s \"Relative size versus controlling for size: interpretations of ratios in research on sexual dimorphism in the human corpus callosum”. Current Anthropology 46:266

Godfrey L.R., Semprebon, G.M., Schwartz, G.T., Burney, D.A., Jungers, W.L., Flanagan, E.K., Cuozzo, F.P., and King, S.J. New insights into old lemurs: the trophic adaptations of the Archaeolemuridae. International J Primatol. 26: 825-854.

Shapiro, L..J., Seiffert, C.V.M., Godfrey, L.R., Jungers,. W.L., Simons, E.L., and Randria, G.F.N.
Morphometric analysis of lumbar vertebrae in extinct Malagasy strepsirrhines. Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop. 128: 823-839.

Schwartz, G.T., Mahoney, P, Godfrey, L.R., Cuozzo, F.P., Jungers, W.L. and Randria, G.F.N.
Dental development in Megaladapis edwardsi (Primates, Lemuriformes): Implications for
understanding life history variation in subfossil lemurs. J. Human Evol. 49: 701-721.


Godfrey, L.R., Jungers, W.L., and Scwartz, G.T. Ecology and extinction of Madagascar’s subfossil Lemurs. In: Gould, L. and Sauther, M.L. (eds), Lemurs: Ecology and Adaptation. Springer: NY.,
pp. 41-63

Godfrey, L.R., Schwartz, G.T., Samonds, K.E., Jungers, W.L., and Catlett, K.K. The secrets of the teeth. Evol. Anthrop. 15: 142-154.

Godfrey, L.R., Jungers, W.L., Burney, D.A., Vasey, N., Ramilisonina, Wheeler, W., Lemelin, P, Shapiro, L.J., Schwartz, G.T., King, S.J., Ramarolahy, M.F., Raharivony, L.L., and Randria, G.F.N.
New discoveries of skeletal elements of Hadropithecus stenognatus from Andrahomana Cave, Southeastern Madagascar. J. Human Evol. 51: 395-410.

Konigsberg, L.W., Ross, A.H. and Jungers, W.L. Estimation and evidence in forensic
anthropology: Determining stature. In: A. Schmitt, E. Cunha, and J. Pinheiro (eds.). Forensic
Anthropology and Medicine. Humana Press, pp. 317-331.


Krause, D. W, et al., Preserving Madagascar’s natural heritage: the importance of keeping the island’s vertebrate fossils in the public domain. Madgascar Conservation and Development. 1: 43- 47.
2007 Lemelin, P. and Jungers, W.L. Body size and scaling of the hands and feet of prosimian primates.
Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop. 133: 828-840.

Tocheri, M.W., Orr, C.M., Larson, S.G., Sutikna, T., Jatmiko, Saptomo, E.W., Due, R.A.,
Djubiantono, T., Morwood, M.J., Jungers, W.L. The primitive wrist of Homo floresiensis and its implications for hominin evolution. Science 317: 1743–1745.

Mittra, E.S., Smith, H.F., Lemelin, P. and Jungers, W.L. Comparative morphometrics of the
primate apical tuft. Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop. 134: 449-459.

Larson, S.G., Jungers, W.L., Morwood, M.J., Sutikna, T., Jatmiko, Wahuy Saptomo, E., Awe Due
and R. Djubiantono, T. Homo floresiensis and the evolution of the hominin Shoulder. J. Hum.
Evol. 53: 718-731


Jungers, W.L., Demes, B., and Godfrey, L.R. How big were the “giant lemurs” of Madagascar?
In: Elwyn Simons: a Search for Origins (J.G. Fleagle and C.C. Gilbert, eds.), Springer, NY, pp.
343- 360.

Godfrey, L.R., Jungers, W.L., Schwartz, G.T. and Irwin, M.T. Ghosts and orphans: Madagascar’s vanishing ecosystems. In: Elwyn Simons: a Search for Origins (J.G. Fleagle and C.C. Gilbert,
eds.), Springer, NY, pp. 361-395.

Lemelin, P., Hamrick, M.W., Richmond, B.G., Godfrey, L.R., Jungers, W.L. and Burney, D.A.
New hand bones of Hadropithecus stenognathus: implications for the paleobiology of the
Archaeolemuridae. J. Human Evol. 54: 405-413.

Wallace, I., Demes, B., Jungers, W.L., Alvero, M., and Su, A. The bipedalism of the Dmanisi
hominins: Pidgeon-toed early Homo? Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop. 136: 375-378.

Burney, DA, Vasey, N., Godfrey, L.R., Ramilisonina, Jungers, W.L., Ramarolahy, M., and
Raharivony, L. New findings at Andrahomana Cave, southeastern Madagascar. J. Cave & Karst
Studies 70: 13-24.

Richmond, B.G. and Jungers, W.L. Orrorin tugenensis femoral morphology and the evolution of
hominin bipedalism. Science 319: 1662-1665.

Ryan, T.M., Burney, D.A., Godfrey, L.R., Gohlich, U.B., Jungers, W.L., Vasey, N., Ramilisonina,
Walker, A., and Weber, G.W. A reconstruction of the Vienna skull of Hadropithecus stenognathus.
Proc. Nat Acad. Sci. 105: 10699-10702.

Sylvester, A.D., Kramer, P.A., and Jungers, W.L. Modern humans are not (quite) isometric. Amer.
J. Phys. Anthrop. 137: 371 – 383 (DOI 10.1002/ajpa.20880).


Larson, S.G., Jungers, W.L. et al. Descriptions of the upper limb skeleton of Homo floresiensis.
J. Human Evol. 57: 555-570. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2008.06.007

Jungers, W. L. et al., Descriptions of the lower limb skeleton of Homo floresiensis. J Human Evol. 57: 538-554. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2008.08.014

Wunderlich, R.E. and Jungers, W.L. Manual digital pressures during knuckle-walking in
chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop. 139: 394-403 (Doi: 10.1002/ajpa.20994)

Falk, D., Hildebolt, C., Smith, K., Jungers, W.L. et al. The Type Specimen (LB1) of Homo
floresiensis did not have Laron Syndrome. Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop. 140: 52-63. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.21035

Scott, J.R., Ungar, P.S., Jungers, W.L., Godfrey, L.R., Scott, R.S., Simons, E.L., Teaford, M.F.,
and Walker, A. Dental microwear texture analysis of two genera of subfossil lemurs from
Madagascar. J. Human Evol. 56: 405-416. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2008.11.003.

Jungers, W.L., Harcourt-Smith, W.E.H., Wunderlich, R.E., Tocheri, M.W., Larson, S.G., Sutikna,
T., Rhokus Awe Due, and Morwood, M.J. The foot of Homo floresiensis. Nature 459: 81-84

Jungers, W.L. Interlimb proportions in humans and fossil hominins: variability and scaling. In: F.E. Grine, R.E. Leakey, and J.G. Fleagle (eds.), The First Humans: Origins of the Genus Homo.
Springer: Dordrecht, pp 93-98.

Morwood, M.J. and Jungers, W.L. Conclusions: implications of the Liang Bua excavations for
hominin evolution and biogeography. J. Human Evol. 57: 640-650.

Jungers, W.L. and Baab, K. The geometry of hobbits: Homo floresiensis and human evolution.
Significance. December, 2009: 159-164.


Jungers, W.L. Barefoot running strikes back.. News& Views, Nature 463: 433-434.

Catlett, K.K., Schwartz, G.T.,Godfrey, L.R. and Jungers, W.L. “Life history space”: a multivariate
analysis of life history variation in extant and extinct Malagasy lermurs. Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop.
142: 391-404.

Godfrey, L.G., Jungers, W.L., and Burney, D.A. Subfossil lemurs of Madagascar. In: L. Werdelin
and W. Sanders (eds.), Cenozoic Mammals of Africa., pp.351-367, University of California Press:

Falk, D., Hildebolt, C., Smith, K., Brown, P. Jungers, W., Larson. S., Morwood. M.,
Sutikna, T., Jatmiko, Samptomo, E.W., and Prior, F. Nonpathological Asymmetry in LB1 (Homo floresiensis): a Reply to Eckhardt and Henneberg. Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop. 143: 340-342.


Matthew W. Tocheri, Christyna R. Solhan, Caley M. Orr, John Femiani, Bruno Frohlich,
Colin P. Groves, William E. Harcourt-Smith, Brian G. Richmond, Brett Shoelson, and William L. Jungers. Ecological divergence and medial cuneiform morphology in gorillas. J. Human Evol. 60:171-184.

In press:

Jungers, W.L. and Kaifu, Y. On dental wear, dental work and oral health in the type specimen (LB1) of Homo floresiensis. Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol.

Villmoare, B., Fish, J., and Jungers, W. Selection, morphological integration, and strepsirrhime locomotor adaptations. Evolutionary Biology.

Jungers, W.L. Homo floresiensis. In: D.R. Begun (ed.), Companion to Paleoanthropology. Wiley-Blackwell: Malden, MA.

Godfrey, L.R., Schwartz, G.T., Jungers, W.L., Catlett, K.K., Samonds, K.E., King, S.J., Muldoon, K.M., Irwin, M.T. and Burney, D.A. Anthropoid analogues? Life history variation in Madagascar’s giant extinct lemurs. In: J. Masters, M. Gambsa, and F.Genin (eds.), Leaping Ahead: Advances in Prosimian Biology. Springer Verlag.

Richmond, B.G., W.L. Jungers. Hominin proximal femur morphology from the Tugen Hills to
Flores. In: Reynolds, S., Gallagher, A., Menter, C. (Eds) African Genesis: Proceedings of the African Genesis Symposium, Witswanderand University Press, South Africa.

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