Associate Professor of Anthropology
George Washington University
Department of Anthropology
Associate Editor, American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Dr. Richmond is a biological anthropologist whose research involves human paleontology and functional anatomy aimed at understanding the origin and evolution of human gait, feeding biomechanics, and manual dexterity.
Dr. Richmond has conducted paleontological fieldwork in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Turkey in sediments spanning the Oligocene to the Pleistocene, with an emphasis on great ape and human fossils. He has also done experimental laboratory studies on the locomotion of chimpanzees, gibbons, and several Old World monkey species, and finite element analysis work on skeletal architecture.
Current Research Projects :
1) Paleontological fieldwork in the early Pleistocene at Ileret, Kenya. New fossil discoveries form one of the foundations of human evolutionary research, and provide the raw data of the hominin fossil record and its environmental and behavioral context.
2) Trabecular bone functional morphology. Trabecular bone structure (the spongy bone matrix within joints) tracks habitual joint function, and therefore holds promise for resolving long-standing debates over the nature of locomotion in early hominins, including Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, and early Homo.
3) Finite element analysis of primate craniofacial biomechanics. As part of a NSF HOMINID-funded collaborative research project, we use finite element analysis in conjunction with experimental data to test hypotheses about how the face and skull are strained during biting and chewing, how craniofacial shape influences feeding biomechanics, and ultimately the biomechanical significance of hominin skull morphology.
2007 Begun, D., B.G. Richmond, D.S. Strait. Comment on “Origin of Human Bipedalism As an Adaptation for Locomotion on Flexible Branches”? Science 318: 1066-1067.
2007 Green, D., A. Gordon, and B.G. Richmond. Limb-size proportions in Australopithecus afarensis and Australopithecus africanus. Journal of Human Evolution 52: 187-200.
2007 Strait, D.S., B.G. Richmond, M.A. Spencer, C.F. Ross, Dechow, P. and Wood, B.A. Something to chew on: masticatory biomechanics and its relevance to early hominid phylogeny. In Lockwood, C.A. and J.G. Fleagle (Guest Eds.) Journal of Human Evolution 52: 585-599.
2006 Richmond, B.G. Functional morphology of the midcarpal joint in knuckle-walkers and terrestrial quadrupeds. In Ishida, H., Tuttle, R., Pickford, M., Ogihara, N., and Nakatsukasa, M. (Eds) Human Origins and Environmental Backgrounds. New York: Springer. p. 105-122.
2005 Griffin, N.L. and B.G. Richmond. Cross-sectional geometry of the human forefoot. Bone 37: 253-260.
2005 Richmond, B.G., B.W. Wright, I. Grosse, P.C. Dechow, C. Ross, M. Spencer, D. Strait. Finite element analysis in functional morphology. Anatomical Record 238A: 259-274.
2005 Strait, D.S., Q. Wang, P.C. Dechow, C.F. Ross, B.G. Richmond, M. Spencer, B. Patel. Modeling material properties in finite element analysis: How accurate is accurate enough? Anatomical Record 238A: 275-287.
2005 Ross, C.F., B. Patel, D. Slice, D. Strait, P.C. Dechow, B.G. Richmond, M. Spencer. Modeling masticatory muscle force in finite-element analysis: sensitivity analysis using principal coordinates analysis. Anatomical Record 238A: 288-299.
2003 Kappelman, J., D.T. Rasmussen, W.J. Sanders, M. Feseha, T. Bown, P. Copeland, J. Crabaugh, J. Fleagle, M. Glantz, A. Gordon, B. Jacobs, M. Maga, K. Muldoon, A. Pan, L. Pyne, B. Richmond, T. Ryan, E.R. Seiffert, S. Sen, L. Todd, M. Wiemann, and A. Winkler. Oligocene mammals from Ethiopia and faunal exchange between Afro-Arabia and Eurasia. Nature 426: 549-552.
2003 Kappelman, J., B. Richmond, E.R. Seiffert, M. Maga, T. Ryan. Fossil apes from the Sinap Formation. In Kappelman, J., M. Fortelius, R. Bernor, and S. Sen (Eds.) The Chronology and Paleontology of the Sinap Formation, Turkey. Columbia University Press.
2002 Richmond, B.G., L.C. Aiello, and B.A. Wood. Early hominin limb proportions. Journal of Human Evolution 43: 529-548.
2002 Panger, M.A., A.S. Brooks, B.G. Richmond, and B.A. Wood. Older than the Oldowan: Rethinking the emergence of hominin tool use. Evolutionary Anthropology 11: 234-245.
2002 Jungers, W.L., L.R. Godfrey, E.L. Simons, R.E. Wunderlich, B.G. Richmond, P.S. Chatrath, and B. Rakotosamimanana. Ecomorphology and behavior of giant extinct lemurs from Madagascar. In J.M. Plavcan, R.F. Kay, C.P. van Schaik and W.L. Jungers (Eds.) Reconstructing Behavior in the Primate Fossil Record. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. p. 371-411.
2001 Richmond, B.G., D.R. Begun, D.S. Strait. The origin of human bipedalism: the knuckle-walking hypothesis revisited. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 44: 70-105.
2001 Richmond, B.G. and D.S. Strait. Knuckle-walking hominid ancestors: A reply to Corruccini & McHenry. Journal of Human Evolution 40: 513-520.
2001 Silverman, N., B.G. Richmond, and B.A. Wood. Testing the taxonomic integrity of Paranthropus boisei sensu stricto. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 115: 167-178.
2001 Richmond, B.G. and D.S. Strait. Did our human ancestors knuckle-walk? Nature 410: 326.
2001 Richmond, B.G. and D.S. Strait. Les hommes ont-ils eu un ancêtre “knuckle-walker”? Primatologie 3: 555-570.
2001 Richmond, B.G. and D.S. Strait. Réponse à B. Senut et R. H. Tuttle: Lorsque les caractères ont une signification fonctionnelle Primatologie 3: 577-582.
2001 Richmond, B.G. and M. Whalen. Forelimb function, bone curvature, and phylogeny of Sivapithecus. In de Bonis, L. and G. Koufos (Eds.) Phylogeny of Eurasian Neogene Hominoid Primates. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 326-348.
2000 Wood, B.A. and B.G. Richmond. Human Evolution: Taxonomy and Paleobiology. Journal of Anatomy 196: 19-60.
2000 Richmond, B.G. and D.S. Strait. Evidence that humans evolved from knuckle-walking ancestors. Nature 404: 382-385.
1998 Richmond, B.G., J.G. Fleagle, J. Kappelman, and C.C. Swisher. First hominoid from the Miocene of Ethiopia and the evolution of the catarrhine elbow. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 105: 257-277.
1997 Godfrey, L.R., W.L. Jungers, R.E. Wunderlich, and B.G. Richmond. Reappraisal of the postcranium of Hadropithecus (Primates, Indroidea). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 103, 529-556.
1996 Demes, A.B., W.L. Jungers, J.G. Fleagle, R.E. Wunderlich, B.G. Richmond, and P. Lemelin. Body size and leaping kinematics in Malagasy vertical clingers and leapers. Journal of Human Evolution 31:367-388.
1996 Lockwood, C.A., B.G. Richmond, W.L. Jungers, W.H. Kimbel. Randomization procedures and sexual dimorphism in Australopithecus afarensis. Journal of Human Evolution 31:537-548.
1996 Fleagle, J.G., B.G. Richmond, F. Ankel-Simons, P. Chatrath, and E.L. Simons. Aegyptopithecus zeuxis and the evolution of Old World higher primates. Proceedings of the Geological Survey of Egypt Centennial Conference, 277-287.
1995 Richmond, B.G. and W.L. Jungers. Size variation and sexual dimorphism in Australopithecus afarensis and living hominoids. Journal of Human Evolution 29:229-245.
News & Reviews :
2002 Richmond, B.G. Skeletal function and form: Mechanobiology of skeletal development, aging, and regeneration. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 119: 292-293.
1999 Richmond, B.G. Primate and Human Evolution at the 1999 Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists. Evolutionary Anthropology 8: 159-161