Former Director of the School of Biosciences and Professor of Mammalian Genetics of Cardiff University, UK.
Cardiff, United Kingdom.
Martin Evans had worked with mouse embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells, which although they came from tumors could give rise to almost any cell type. He had the vision to use EC cells as vehicles to introduce genetic material into the mouse germ line. His attempts were initially unsuccessful because EC cells carried abnormal chromosomes and could not therefore contribute to germ cell formation. Looking for alternatives Evans discovered that chromosomally normal cell cultures could be established directly from early mouse embryos. These cells are now referred to as embryonic stem (ES) cells.
The next step was to show that ES cells could contribute to the germ line (see Figure). Embryos from one mouse strain were injected with ES cells from another mouse strain. These mosaic embryos (i.e. composed of cells from both strains) were then carried to term by surrogate mothers. The mosaic offspring was subsequently mated, and the presence of ES cell-derived genes detected in the pups. These genes would now be inherited according to Mendel’s laws.
Evans now began to modify the ES cells genetically and for this purpose chose retroviruses, which integrate their genes into the chromosomes. He demonstrated transfer of such retroviral DNA from ES cells, through mosaic mice, into the mouse germ line. Evans had used the ES cells to generate mice that carried new genetic material.
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007, with Mario R. Capecchi and Oliver Smithies, \"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells\".
Complementation of null CF mice with a human CFTR YAC transgene. A.L. Manson, A.E.O. Trezise, L.J. MacVinish, K.D. Kasschau, N. Birchall, V. Episkopou, G. Vassaux, M.J. Evans, W.H. Colledge, A.W. Cuthbert, and C. Huxley. EMBO J., 16: p. 4238 - 4249, (1997).
Mice deficient for the secreted glycoprotgein SPARC/OSTEONECTIN/BM40 develop normally but show severe age-onset cataract formation and disruption of the lens. D.T. Gilmour, G.J. Lyon, M.B.L. Carlton, J.R. Sanes, J.M. Cunningham, J.R. Anderson, B.L.M. Hogan, M.J. Evans, and W.H. Colledge. Embo Journal, 17(7): p. 1860-1870, (1998).
Salmonella typhi uses CFTR for intestinal translocation, providing a basis for the heterozygote advantage in cystic fibrosis. G.B. Pier, M. Grout, T. Zaidi, G. Meluleni, S.S. Mueschenborn, G. Banting, R. Ratcliff, M.J. Evans, and W.H. Colledge. Nature, 393: p. 79-82, (1998).
Mitotic checkpoint inactivation fosters transformation in cells lacking the breast cancer susceptibility gene, Brca2. H. Lee, A. Trainer, L. Friedman, F. Thistlethwaite, M. Evans, B. Ponder, and A. Venkitaraman. Molecular Cell, 4(1): p. 1-10, (1999)
A retroviral gene trap insertion into the histone 3.3A gene causes partial neonatal lethality, stunted growth, neuromuscular deficits and male sub-fertility in transgenic mice. C. Couldrey, M. Carlton, P. Nolan, W. Colledge, and M. Evans. Human Molecular Genetics, 8(13): p.2489-2495, (1999).
Non-Surgical Method for the Induction of Delayed Implantation and Recovery of Viable Blastocysts in Rats and Mice by the Use of Tamoxifen and Depo-Provera. S. MacLean Hunter and M. Evans. Molecular Reproduction and Development, 52(1): p. 29-32, (1999).
Polarity of the mouse embryo is anticipated before implantation. R. Weber, R. Pedersen, F. Wianny, M. Evans, and M. Zernicka-Goetz. Development, 126(24): p. 5591-5598, (1999)
Mml, a mouse Mix-like gene expressed in the primitive streak. J.J.H. Pearce and M. J. Evans. Mechanisms of Development, 87: p. 189-192, (1999)
Eomesodermin is required for mouse trophoblast development and mesoderm formation. A. P. Russ, S. Wattler, W.H. Colledge, S.A. Aparicio, M.B. Carlton, J.J. Pearce, S.C. Barton, A.M. Surani, K. Ryan, M.C. Nehls, V. Wilson, and M.J. Evans. Nature, 404: p. 59-99, (2000).
A murine tracheal culture system to investigate parameters affecting gene therapy for cystic fibrosis. E.A. Scott, C.A. Goddard, J.W. Wiseman, M.J. Evans, and W.H. Colledge. Gene Therapy, 7: p. 612-618, (2000)
Evans MJ. The cultural mouse. Nat Med. 7(10):1081-3 (2001)
Du M, Jones JR, Lanier J, Keeling KM, Lindsey JR, Tousson A, Bebok Z, Whitsett JA, Dey CR, Colledge WH, Evans MJ, Sorscher EJ, Bedwell DM. Aminoglycoside suppression of a premature stop mutation in a Cftr-/- mouse carrying a human CFTR-G542X transgene. J Mol Med. 80(9):595-604. (2002)
Bachmann O, Rossmann H, Berger UV, Colledge WH, Ratcliff R, Evans MJ, Gregor M, Seidler U. cAMP-mediated regulation of murine intestinal/pancreatic Na+/HCO3- cotransporter subtype pNBC1. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 284(1):G37-45. (2003)
Bachmann O, Wuchner K, Rossmann H, Leipziger J, Osikowska B, Colledge WH, Ratcliff R, Evans MJ, Gregor M, Seidler U. Expression and regulation of the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter NKCC1 in the normal and CFTR-deficient murine colon. J Physiol. 549(Pt 2):525-36. (2003)
Wride MA, Mansergh FC, Adams S, Everitt R, Minnema SE, Rancourt DE, Evans MJ. Expression profiling and gene discovery in the mouse lens. Mol Vis. 22;9:360-96. (2003)
Evans, M., isolation and maintenance of murine embryonic stem cells., in Handbook of Stem Cells. 2004, academic Press. p. 413- 417.
Mansergh, F.C., M.A. Wride, V.E. Walker, S. Adams, S.M. Hunter, and M.J. Evans, Gene expression changes during cataract progression in Sparc null mice: differential regulation of mouse globins in the lens. Mol Vis, 2004. 10: p. 490-511.
Evans, M., Ethical sourcing of human embryonic stem cells--rational solutions? Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 2005. 6(8): p. 663-7.
Evans, M., Embryonic stem cells: a perspective. Novartis Found Symp, 2005. 265: p. 98-103; discussion 103-6, 122-8.
Esfandiari, E., M. Bailey, C.R. Stokes, T.M. Cox, M.J. Evans, and A.R. Hayman, TRACP Influences Th1 pathways by affecting dendritic cell function. J Bone Miner Res, 2006. 21(9): p. 1367-76.
Evans, M., Isolation and Maintenance of Murine Embryonic Stem Cells, in Essentials of Stem Cell Biology. 2006, Elsevier. p. 269-273.
Roberts, H.C., L. Knott, N.C. Avery, T.M. Cox, M.J. Evans, and A.R. Hayman, Altered Collagen in Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRAP)-Deficient Mice: A Role for TRAP in Bone Collagen Metabolism. Calcif Tissue Int, 2007. 80(6): p. 400-10.
Sansom, O.J., F. Mansergh, M. Evans, J. Wilkins, and A. Clarke, Deficiency of SPARC suppresses intestinal tumourigenesis in APCMin/+ Mice. Gut, 2007.