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International Center for Scientific Research

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Imitating synapses of the human brain could lead to smarter electronics

SCIENCEDAILY - 16 November 2015

Making a computer that learns and remembers like a human brain is a daunting challenge. The complex organ has 86 billion neurons and trillions of connections -- or synapses -- that can grow stronger or weaker over time. But now scientists report the development of a first-of-its-kind synthetic synapse that mimics the plasticity of the real thing, bringing us one step closer to human-like artificial intelligence.

Brain inspired data engineering

SCIENCEDAILY - 29 November 2014

What if next-generation ICT systems could be based on the brain’s structure and its cognitive and adaptive processes? A groundbreaking paradigm of brain-inspired intelligent ICT architectures is being born.

Laser physicists 'see' how electrons make atomic and molecular transitions

SCIENCEDAILY - 29 November 2014

By solving a six-dimensional equation that had previously stymied researchers, physicists have pinpointed the characteristics of a laser pulse that yields electron behavior they can predict and essentially control.

New technique allows ultrasound to penetrate bone, metal

SCIENCEDAILY - 21 November 2014

Researchers have developed a technique that allows ultrasound to penetrate bone or metal, using customized structures that offset the distortion usually caused by these so-called 'aberrating layers.'

Step toward quantum computers: Two photons strongly coupled by glass fiber

SCIENCEDAILY - 03 November 2014

Usually, light waves do not interact with each other. Coupling of photons with other photons is only possible with the help of special materials and very intense light. Scientists have now created the strongest possible coupling of only two photons -- an important achievement for quantum optics.

New solar power material converts 90 percent of captured light into heat

PHYS.ORG - 29 October 2014

A multidisciplinary engineering team at the University of California, San Diego developed a new nanoparticle-based material for concentrating solar power plants designed to absorb and convert to heat more than 90 percent of the sunlight it captures. The new material can also withstand temperatures greater than 700 degrees Celsius and survive many years outdoors in spite of exposure to air and humidity. Their work, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot program, was published recently in two separate articles in the journal Nano Energy.

Saving lots of computing capacity with a new algorithm

PHYS.ORG - 29 October 2014

The control of modern infrastructure such as intelligent power grids needs lots of computing capacity. Scientists of the Interdisciplinary Centre for Security, Reliability and Trust (SnT) at the University of Luxembourg have developed an algorithm that might revolutionise these processes. With their new software the SnT researchers are able to forego the use of considerable amounts of computing capacity, enabling what they call micro mining. Their achievements, which the team headed by Prof. Yves Le Traon published in the International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, earned the scientists a Best Paper Award during this event.

Sweat and a smartphone could become the hot new health screening

PHYS.ORG - 24 October 2014

A University of Cincinnati partnership is reporting a significant leap forward in health diagnostics that are more accurate than what's available today, yet considerably less invasive than something like a blood screening. It's a lightweight, wearable device that analyzes sweat by using a smartphone. Read more at:

Superconducting circuits, simplified

PHYS.ORG - 20 October 2014

Computer chips with superconducting circuits—circuits with zero electrical resistance—would be 50 to 100 times as energy-efficient as today's chips, an attractive trait given the increasing power consumption of the massive data centers that power the Internet's most popular sites.

Giant spin-splitting on the surface of strontium titanate

PHYS.ORG - 14 October 2014

The need for ever faster and more efficient electronic devices is growing rapidly, and thus the demand for new materials with new properties. Oxides, especially ones based on strontium titanate (SrTiO3), play an important role here. Researchers recently discovered that SrTiO3, although actually an insulator, can form a metallic layer on its surface, in which electric current can flow.

Physicists design zero-friction quantum engine

PHYS.ORG - 16 September 2014

In real physical processes, some energy is always lost any time work is produced. The lost energy almost always occurs due to friction, especially in processes that involve mechanical motion. But in a new study, physicists have designed an engine that operates with zero friction while still generating power by taking advantage of some quantum shortcuts. Read more at:

Why the hydrogen fuel cell vehicle rollout may now succeed

PHYS.ORG - 15 August 2014

A convergence of factors is propelling a market rollout of the hydrogen fuel cell vehicle, according to a new study from the Institute of Transportation Studies at the University of California, Davis. A key to hydrogen's potential success is a new smart solution that clusters hydrogen fuel infrastructure in urban or regional networks, limiting initial costs and enabling an early market for the technology before committing to a full national deployment, suggests the study. Read more at:

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